X-rays taken after the game were negative, but Taylor had a second examination on Monday that revealed the break.
Taylor is batting .261 with eight home runs and 41 RBIs in 90 games this season. Dodgers manager Dave Roberts said he expects Taylor to return this season.
In a separate move, the Dodgers recalled outfielder Matt Beaty from Triple-A Oklahoma City on Monday.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.