Dr. Bill Meyers performed the surgery in Philadelphia.
Beckham's recovery timeline figures to be similar to that of Browns running back Kareem Hunt, who underwent sports hernia surgery in training camp but was ready to play after serving an eight-game suspension.
Beckham had 74 receptions, 1,035 receiving yards and four touchdowns this season playing through the injury.
The Browns also said Pro Bowl receiver Jarvis Landry will not have surgery on a hip injury that slowed him during Cleveland's 6-10 season. Landry recently underwent an MRI and consulted with a specialist. He's been cleared to play in the Pro Bowl.
If he had needed surgery, which Landry called "a last resort,'' he could have been sidelined for eight months. He had a team-high 83 receptions for 1,174 yards and six touchdowns last season.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.