FIFA have fined Benfica and Sporting Lisbon, as well as Celta Vigo and Rayo Vallecano, for third-party involvement in transfer deals.
The organisation announced on Thursday the sanctions given to several clubs and federations who have breached FIFA regulations but did not reveal which transfers had led to the punishment.
Benfica, second in the Primeira Liga, were fined 150,000 Swiss francs (approximately £109,000 or $155,000) for entering into two contracts that enabled a third party to influence the club's independence.
Sporting will have to pay 110,000 Swiss francs after being found guilty of the same breach and were also found to be in violation of regulations on the status and transfer of players.
Celta Vigo were fined 65,000 Swiss francs for entering into a contract that enabled Benfica to influence their independence as well as for misusing FIFA's International Transfer Matching System (ITMS).
Rayo Vallecano, second in Spain's second division, will pay 55,000 Swiss francs for third-party influence, for failing to record an existing third-party ownership agreement and for failing to enter correct and mandatory information in ITMS.
A fine of 187,500 Swiss francs was also levied against Al Arabi of Qatar for third-party agreements. Two football associations were fined as well: Laos, which was fined 690,000 Swiss francs for breaching transfer regulations regarding minors, and Indonesia, which was fined 30,000 Swiss francs for breaching FIFA rules.